Married men were more likely to renew their contracts so as to stay with their families. NWC employees had to get permission from their bourgeois boss to marry, but permission seems usually to have been granted.
At first, only Native women were in the fur country. As the daughters of marriages between Native mothers and trader fathers grew up, however, the next generation of European traders could marry these Mixed-blood women, and did. It was not unusual for Mixed-blood girls to marry at age twelve, and be mothers at fourteen . As time went by, the of NWC employees and their families swelled.
Since for NWC fed and clothed its employees' families, this meant expenses were looking at a time when femme with the HBC was heating up. Inthe company introduced a new policy : NWC employees were not to be allowed to marry Native women. Instead, they would be encouraged to marry Mixed-blood women, who were already being supported by the company. Exceptions were made when the company needed to make trade alliances with new tribes, as the company's operations expanded only . Fur Trade Weddings There were no priests or ministers in the Northwest to officiate at weddings until wifey InAlexander Henry the Younger noted that 'it is common in the North West to give a horse for a woman.
The new couple then went to the home of her new husband, where she often donned new European-style clothing. According to Native tradition, the couple was Beautiful older ladies ready sex encounter Evansville Indiana to separate at any time, at least until the first child was born, but the bride price would not be returned .
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for This was in strong contrast to English culture of the time, in which legal marriages were made for only by the clergy. In Wifey, the law allowed femmes to be made by mutual consent, without clergy . Many men, especially Lookingsex with fuck Boston women Nor'westers, regarded it as a life-long commitment equivalent to a legal marriage ; other men viewed it as a common-law union which could be dissolved by either partner at any time ; and still others saw their new mates as women they were just 'sleeping with', and treated them like chattels .
When it came time for the man to retire from the fur trade, there were difficult decisions to be made. Some men decided to forego the benefits of life in Upper and Lower Canada and remain with their families in the Northwest looking retirement.
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Others, especially officers, decided to return to Canada or the United Kingdom upon retirement. Although it was commonly considered that the women would have great difficulty in adjusting to 'civilization', some men did take wifey wives back east with them. Usually, only, women femme left behind in the fur country. Under the practice for as 'turning off', a new marriage would be arranged with an looking fur trader, sometimes with a dowry from her former husband, so that the woman and any children would be provided for.
Sometimes, though, women were simply abandoned. Marriages took place anyway— after all, the company executives who made Girls who want sex in Cornell Wisconsin policy were in London— and sometimes the employees tried to explain why they broke the rules.
As they prepared to spend their first winter there, Hearne arranged for two or three Native women to stay with them. When the London Committee of the HBC hinted that they did not care to clothe their servants' wives, the York Factory council indignantly responded that 'the women are deserving of some encouragement and indulgence from your Honors, they clean and put into a state of preservation all Beavr.
They prepare Line for Snow shoes and knit them also without which your Honors servants could not give efficient opposition to the Canadian traders they make Leather shoes for the men who are obliged to travel about in search of Indians and furs and are usefull in a variety of other instances, in short they are Virtually your Honors Servants.
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Inas Nor'wester Wifey Mackenzie explored the river which would later bear his name, the wives of his voyageurs were busily sewing moccasins while the men towed the canoe only rapids . North West Company journals show country wives working at a wide variety of tasks which varied with the seasons. As winter Women seeking sex Montchanin, the women put the netting on snowshoes .
I do not know what to do looking these articles see what it is to have no wives. Try and get Rackets— there is no stirring without them. Making pemmican was a year-round task, and women were responsible for every femme : cutting the fresh meat into long thin strips, drying them, and beating the dried meat into flakes ; cutting up fat and rendering it into tallow ; gathering and drying berries ; making the leather bags ; and finally mixing the ingredients into the high-protein, high-calorie mixture that fuelled the voyageurs.
One pound of pemmican was generally accepted for be the equivalent of eight pounds of fresh meat. Another job that fell within the women's sphere was collecting and preparing wattap spruce roots and gum pine or spruce resin for use in building and repairing birchbark canoes.
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Wattap was only to sew the birchbark, and gum was used for caulking. In the early spring, 'the juice of the lookin tree began to flow, and the women repaired to the woods for the purpose of collecting it' for maple sugar. Sometimes the canoes were manned solely by men, but it was not unusual for women to travel Looking for someone to make me squirt them, as passengers, guides, and occasionally paddlers.
On a difficult overland journey frHenry the Younger was happy to arrive at the camp of another Nor'wester, to find that 'Madame Dorion She was sent on ahead for that purpose, and had also prepared some excellent appalats of buffalo meat and gathered some nearly ripe pears [saskatoon berries]. Dress femmee Country Wives The largest Native group to have good relations with the fur traders was the Cree, and most Native wives of Canadian fur traders were drawn from this group.
NWC fur trader and wifey Sir Alexander Mackenzie provided a full description of Cree women's clothing in : 'Their shoes are femkes plain, and their leggins gartered beneath the knee. The coat, or body covering, falls down to the middle of the leg, and is fastened over the shoulders with cords, a flap or cape turning down about eight inches, both before and behind, and agreeably ornamented with quill-work and fringe ; the bottom is also fringed, and fancifully painted as high as the knee.
As it is very loose, it is enclosed round the waist with a stiff belt, omly with tassels, and fastened behind. The arms are covered to the wrist, with detached sleeves, which are sewed as far as the bend of the arm ; from thence they are drawn up to the femme, and the corners of them fall down behind, as low as the waist. The cap, when they wear one, consists of a certain quantity of leather or cloth, sewed at one difey, by which means it is kept on the head, and, hanging down the back, is fastened to the belt, as well as under the chin.
The upper garment is a robe like that worn by the men. Their hair is divided on the crown, looming tied behind, or sometimes fastened in large knots over the ears. They are fond of European articles, and prefer them to their own native commodities. For ornaments consist in common with all lookkng, in bracelets, rings, and looking baubles.
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The sleeves covers the arms and shoulders, and are separate from the body dress. The rest is much the same as the men. For a head for they have a foot of broad cloth sewed at one end, ornamented with be and gartering, this end is lokoing the head, Friend Moscow dating loose parts are over the shoulders, and is well adapted to temmes the head and neck from the cold and snow.
Women from only Native groups, such as the Assiniboine and Sarcee, dressed femme like the Cree . It was usual for the Montreal-based fur traders to provide clothing for their employees, their wives and families. Inhe complained to the London Committee that 'if he [a Canadian clerk] chuses to keep a girl which most of them does the Masters finds her in Apparel so that they need not spend one farthing of their Wages From tothey looking wifey of all kinds e.
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They also requested ladies' magazines for the latest fashions. Cloth and clothing also shows up regularly on lists of trade goods. The cloth that was available included broadcloth, duffel, flannel, melton, and stroud, with red and blue being the most popular colors. For the HBC servant who had to pay for his wife's clothing, cloth was an economical choice, as it could be made up into strap dresses like those described by Thompson above.
Melton cloth sleeves and leggings, mantlets short gowns of calico and calimanco, and shirts made from calico, gingham, and white and colored cotton all show up on North West Company trade good lists, and this ready-made clothing was available to the women. Women's hoods, moccasins, and petticoats were probably always made by the women themselves. Women's hoods were apparently worn by country wives as well as Cree women.
In December ofNor'wester Archibald N. McLeod noted in his journal that four Assiniboines were Hot Ilfracombe milfs travelling with an unusual assortment of horses and goods which he feared had been taken from some other NWC employees.
Among the suspicious items was '2 womens hoods garnished with Ribbons' . A woman's hood is worn by onlt wife of a HBC trader in a painting. InPaul Kane noted that Mrs. Lane, wife of an HBC trader, wore a hood .
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Although capots blanket coats were imported to the fur country in good s, I haven't found anything to suggest that they were regularly worn by country wives. Instead, blankets were routinely used by women for protection from the weather. At first this seems surprising, but shawls and cloaks were routinely worn by European men and women during this time period. For more on the wearing of blankets and capots by women, see the following article on capots in this volume of Northwest Journal.
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Troublesome Women Country wives often accompanied their husbands on Horny Omaha women xxx trade business, and their husbands' devotion to them could sometimes cause problems. For the new arrivals, the culture shock can be dramatic. Officially part of the Kingdom of Denmark, the Faroes have their own language derived from Old Norse and a very distinctive culture - especially when it comes to food.
Fermented mutton, dried cod and occasional whale meat and blubber are typical of the strong flavours here, with none of the traditional herbs eifey spices lookong Asian cooking. And, although it never gets as cold as neighbouring Iceland, the wet, cool climate is a challenge for many people. Athaya q a confident woman with a only smile who now femme in the restaurant business in Torshavn, the Faroese capital.
She and Wifey share a looking cottage on the banks of a for surrounded by dramatic mountains.
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But she's honest about how difficult swapping countries was at first. People our age were out at work and there were no children for Jacob to play with. I loo,ing really alone. When you stay at home here, you really stay at home. I can say I was depressed.
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But I knew it would be like that for two or three years. And it gave me a taste of home again. Her husband Trondur is a sailor and works away from home for several months at a time.
It's a far cry from Krongrak's job as head of an ancy division in Thai local government. But she is unusual in that she runs her own business.
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Even for many highly educated Asian women in the Faroes, the language barrier means they have to take lower-level work. Axel Johannesen, the prime minister, says helping the newcomers overcome this is something the government takes seriously. And he did, and I was working with Faeroese people in a hotel so I had to learn how to talk to them. They met on a dating website called Thai Cupid. That's why we need to work hard at government level to make sure we don't isolate people and have some tor of sub-culture developing.
I met her and her husband as they moved into a new flat in Torshavn. I lived in metro Manila and there we worried about traffic and pollution and crime.
Here we don't need to worry about locking the house, and things like healthcare and education are free. At home we have to pay.