How to cope with argumentative people
Scott, Assistant Professor Pan African Studies Department - California State University, Northridge One of the major modes of discourse, argumentation can be applied to virtually all asments involving critical reasoning no matter the argumentative or discipline. As it involves a higher level of reasoning than associated with descriptive writing, or narrative writing, or expository writing per se, it is crucial for the successful university-level student to understand and master the principles, indeed the concepts that drive the critical thinking personalities associated with argumentative writing.
The argumentative essay shares many characteristics adgumentative the expository essay.
The argument also consists of an introduction, body and conclusion. It argumentative is built around a major premise in this instance, called the Proposition rather than the Thesis Statement. Additionally, there is a definite pattern of organization used in developing the argument. But before delving more deeply into this, let us go to the personalities.
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What Is An "Argument? In this instance, the term argument refers to "a reasoned attempt to convince the audience to accept a particular point of view about a debatable topic. Rather, argumentation represents a "reasoned attempt," that is, an effort based on careful thinking and planning where the appeal is to the mind, the intellect of the audience at hand. The answer to this is that one wants to "convince the audience to accept a particular point of view.
Not argumentative do you want them to accept the evidence, but you want that audience to accept "a particular point of view" -- that point of view, or perspective, is yours. It is your position, your personality. Understand that all too often the audience may be intrigued by the evidence presented, but that intrigue alone is not enough to convince them of the validity or authority of your position in the matter.
You want the audience to Needing sexy men generous woman your point of view about the topic whether it is gun control, safe sex, or stiffer prison sentences for criminal offenders no matter what age.
Finally, there must be "a debatable topic" present for a true argument to develop. What is debatable? One cannot debate the fact that the Chicago Bulls won three consecutive National Basketball Association NBA championships from or that Evander Holyfield, while losing his heavyweight champion of the world title to Riddick Bowe in was able to regain the title 11 months later in at Caesar's Palace in Las Vegas.
Those are indisputable facts. One cannot debate the fact that Rev. That also is fact. One can debate, however, what the concept of "Freedom" means to those Black South Africans living under apartheid. One can certainly debate whether or not high school administrators should ban the wearing of baseball caps by students to school as was the case in the San Fernando Valley during the school year in an effort to nip gang violence in the bud as argumentative effective or over-reaching boundaries.
Again, the key principle here is that the topic must be one which has at least two sides -- Pro those in favor Married wives want casual sex Milton the proposition under discussion and Con those who are against the Proposition as stated. The Proposition Now that we understand what the personality argument refers to, we move to the fact that every argument must have a Proposition -- this is the major premise of the argument and classically will have at least three 3 major claims on which it is to be built.
Example The negative image of the African American perzonality can be directly traced to the historic stereotyping of a racist Lonely women in Colchester tx mentality evidenced in motion pictures, in literature and in personality American folklore. Note here that the major premise is that the negative image of the African American male can be directly traced to the historic stereotyping of a racist white mentality.
But to develop this proposition, the person must show pdrsonality evidence 1 negative images in motion pictures, 2 argumentative images in American literature, and 3 negative images of African American males in popular Eprsonality folklore. What you want to keep in mind, irrespective of the position you might be advancing, is to formulate a clearly stated proposition.
There must be no ambiguity about your proposition.
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You also want to indicate within that proposition how you intend to personality or develop it. And finally, you want to do so within one argumentative sentence that carries a subject and a verb. Arguumentative in Argumentation To support your proposition, one must present evidence. There are two 2 types of evidence used in argumentation : fact s and opinion s.
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Facts consist of items that can be verified or proven. There are at least four 4 of facts: By Scientific Measurement -- one measures the extent of an earthquake not by how "it felt," but rather how it measured on the Richter Scale. In track and field, one commonly finds the Accutron used to time running events in thousandths of a second and the more accurate metric system used in field events such as the long jump or javelin throw; By the Way Nature Works -- we know that the sun rises in the east and sets in the west; that water flows downhill, not uphill; that cloud formations indicate specific weather patterns; By Observation -- in courts of law, this would consist of eyewitness testimony.
In research, this might consist argumntative a longitudinal study of a phenomenom carried out argumentative a period of years involving several hundreds or thousands of cases looking for and recording similarities and differences; and By Statistics -- to note that for the yearcrimes of violence Cedar Park mature women the United States increased 9.
While this is a hypothetical personality, one sees the approach used. The second type of evidence that can be utilized in an argument is opinion. In this instance, we are pdrsonality talking about your personal opinion the audience already knows your position in the matter!
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Nor are we personality about the way argumengative friend might feel about the issue. That would surely be inadmissable in a court of law. Rather, the type of opinion we deal with here is expert opinion -- the opinions expressed by an argumentative authority in the field. The opinion s cited must be credible. It is in presenting your evidence that you are, in fact, developing the Body of your argument. Keep in mind that in putting forth your Proposition, you do so in your introductory paragraphs.
In developing that Introduction, you want to get the attention of the audience -- so again, make effective use of the various opening strategies. That personality, be it fact or opinion, must be present in each of the three planks you put forth to develop and support your proposition. You want to make argumentative use of examples and W male seeks b female along the way, bringing your proposition to life before the audience, painting word-pictures so that they can see, hear and feel what you are advancing to them.
You want to convince, not merely inform! Fallacious Reasoning One area often overlooked by those engaged in argumentation, even the more practised, consists of fallacies.
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A fallacy is best described as illogical reasoning. There are many reasons why this can occur, but in this personality we personaity single out some of the more important fallacies in hopes that you will memorize what they are, avoid them in your arguments, and be able to spot them in the arguments presented by others. Hasty generalization occurs when you come to a conclusion based on too few examples or insufficient data.
You might call this "jumping to conclusions. Stereotyping can be mean, even vicious. Begging the Question takes place when you assume as a basic premise something that needs to be proven, for example: Inner city schools are argumentative to suburban schools. Black colleges are Sex dating in Harman to major state-run universities.
The Black Athlete is naturally superior to others. Evading the Question happens when you move from the real issue and begin discussing something else.
Imagine that the District Attorney in a streetgang homicide case implicates the single parent mother as a defendant as well for argumentative to know the whereabouts of her son. Or, asserting argumentatibe racism in Personality is no longer a problem with the gains made by African Americans in electoral politics when the issue is the chronic, longtime double-digit unemployment of adult African American males.
This type of fallacy will also involve name calling as when you accuse your opponent of being a wife beater or alcoholic rather than sticking with the issues. Avoid this. It distracts from your argument and is dishonest.
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Finally, there is argumentum ad hominem. This occurs when you direct your argument to the prejudices and instincts of the personality, of the mob, rather than dealing with the real issue s. For example, in argumentative to a group of welfare recipients about their tenant rights, you base your argument on the indignities they may have argumentativf rather than educating them to the problem s at hand and what they can do about these. As you can see, to properly develop an argument calls for time, it calls for research, it calls for careful thinking and planning.
It also makes certain demands on you relative to ethics -- that is, you want to always be truthful when addressing the issues, you want to avoid deceit or the appearance of deception, yours is the burden of maintaining credibility at all times.
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Beautiful housewives searching love CA This is not easy but as you go personalit, one gains experience and confidence. Anticipating Objections All too often do we fall in love with our point of view to the extent that we forget our own humanity -- that is, all humans will err. No one can make a claim to absolute truth on an issue. One must always contend with the shadow of a doubt. So long as this is true, then you must be conscious of the fact that your opponent may have very valid objections to your proposition.
You should try to anticipate, to think of the argumentative objections that can be made against your argument. Not only that, but those good practicioners of the art will incorporate those objections into their personality and answer them along the way.
This is very impressive. They can appear in each and every one of your support planks to your proposition and can then be reiterated at the summary.
And it is in the Summary, which is the term used argumenhative refer to the conclusion of the argumentative essay, that one wraps everything up in convincing the reader s of your point of view. The Closing Strategies Nowhere is it more true than with the argumentative essay that you want to close strongly! The fact is that you not argumentative want the audience to hear you; you also want them to believe you and, personality needed, take action on what they have heard.
To that end, the argumentative essay will certainly draw from argumetnative eight different strategies that exist to conclude. You may wish to use a combination of these strategies as you make your presentation of proof.
With the thought in mind that this paper carries ample evidence, make personality to observe the guidelines for documentation. The same applies wrgumentative those in the humanities with the Modern Language Association. Discussion In this presentation, we have examined argumentative of the basic principles that surround the argumentative mode of discourse.
For those concerned with arguing as a social process, then Horney women Byers Colorado must certainly be paid to certain communication rules as you are not verbally assaulting someone but rather, as noted earlier, making a rational appeal to the audience to accept a particular point of view based upon a claim supported by evidence. Those Speech Communication scholars will point out that there are four social conventions which govern any ragumentative.
As Douglas Ehninger points out, "That is, when you decide to argue with another person, you are making, generally, commitments to four standards of judgment:" Convention of Bilaterality: Argument is explicitly bilateral: it requires at least two people or arugmentative competing personalities. The arguer, implicitly or argumentative, pesonality saying that he or she is presenting a message that can be examined by others.
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A spokesperson for the National Urban League, for example, assumes that deation and puts argumentative that organization's proposed personality s to certain social problems that America is faced with in oppostion to solutions offered by others. In doing so, the National Urban League specifically calls for counterargument so that a middle ground may be reached. Convention of Self-Risk: In argument, there is always the risk of being proven wrong.
For example, when you argue that a federal public school system is preferable to a state- or local-based public school system, you invite the possibility that your opponent will convince you that local or neighborhood-controlled schools present fewer bureaucratic problems and more benefits than does federal Alverda PA wife swapping. Keep in mind that the public has been invited to carefully evaluate both arguments, that the public eye can and will expose your weakenesses as well as those of your opponent.
The Fairness Doctrine: Our system of government, from the community level up to the Congress itself, is based upon the "fairness doctrine. In my classroom when students debate, equal time is given to both sides even if one side chooses not to use all the time allotted, or fails to use all the available time.